Book Review Uncategorized

Book Review: Managing Kubernetes

So as 2018 comes to a close soon, one fact can be pointed out: Kubernetes is the winner of the container orchestration frameworks “war”, short lived as it was. The popularity of the project is growing steadily and it is being adopted in a variety of businesses, from the small, but technologically adept startup, to large, multi-department enterprises. The “big-three” cloud providers are offering managed Kubernetes versions and there is a steadily growing ecosystem, taking care of various needs that end-users might have. Having said that, this is reflected in the relevant technical literature were most major publishing houses have circulated Kubernetes related books. The focus of these books is usually migrating an application stack to Kubernetes, or Kubernetes basic building blocks. The book chosen for this review is different: it is aimed towards system engineers (or “DevOps” or “SREs” or whatever term/methodology your organization is using) and strives to provide actionable information on managing Kubernetes clusters. Let’s start with a ToC

  • Introduction
  • An Overview of Kubernetes
  • Kubernetes Architecture
  • The Kubernetes API server
  • Scheduler
  • Installing Kubernetes
  • Authentication and User Management
  • Authorization
  • Admission Control
  • Networking
  • Monitoring Kubernetes
  • Disaster Recovery
  • Extending Kubernetes
  • Conclusions

As it can already be seen from the ToC, this book is a departure from the usual Kubernetes literature – most of the literature out there concerns itself with application deployment and application lifecycle on the cluster. Another interesting fact for this book is that it assumes that you run a self-managed Kubernetes cluster – the peculiarities of running Kubernetes-as-a-service are not covered – however, the knowledge contained in this book will be useful even when troubleshooting managed installations. From the introduction, it becomes evident that the focus of the book is to prepare the reader to be able to respond when things do not work as expected (or plainly go wrong), be able to finetune and optimize clusters and finally to be able to extend the system with custom or new functionality.

Once the objectives are set, the book gives an essential introduction to Kubernetes application building blocks, starting from the bare essentials, like Pods and ReplicaSets and progressing to more advanced topics. However, as discussed, this is not the focus of the book so the section is quite short.

In the next chapter, the basics of Kubernetes architecture (which in itself is a distributed system) are laid down. The chapter is broken down in Concepts, Structure and Components, each of which gets a concise, yet packed with information, treatise. With that out of the way, the book moves on to the Kubernetes API Server, describes in detail its structure (which should not be that unfamiliar to those that have worked with well-designed REST APIs before) and ends with some debugging tips. This is followed by a short section on scheduling, while only a high level overview of the algorithm itself is given, at least we are given a treatment on affinities, taints and the rest.

As stated before, Kubernetes is itself a distributed system. There are more than one way to install it, the book chooses to focus on kubeadm – a sane choice given that quite a few installation tools use kubeadm under the hood.

The next two chapters deal with Authentication and Authorization (A1 and A2 for all you infosec acronym fans). Kubernetes itself supports a few Authentication mechanisms, with client certificates likely to be the most common, and the most important ones are examined. With that out of the way, the book discusses, again in a concise way, Kubernetes authorization and admission control. While authorization has kind of settled down by now, admission control is a rapidly moving target – this is pointed out properly by the authors, who pass along enough knowledge for someone to be able to follow into this topic.

The next chapter dives into one of the most important, yet often overlooked, aspects of Kubernetes: networking. As stated already, Kubernetes is a distributed system and networking between components is one crucial aspect. Again, we get a concise treatment about Container Runtime Interface, Service Discovery and even service meshes get a mention at the end of the chapter.

Running a cluster means you should have an x-ray into the cluster, thus the next cluster is concerned with monitoring a Kubernetes cluster, as well as an introduction to monitoring applications inside the cluster. This should give the operator enough insight about the cluster health at any given moment. In case the cluster health is not nominal, is the topic of the penultimate chapter, namely disaster recovery. When running a distributed system a lot of different aspects of the system can fail and, as an operator, you should be prepared to respond and restore the functionality of the cluster to a well defined state. Certain failure points and tools for recovery are discussed. The book closes off with a chapter on extending Kubernetes, somewhat surprisingly using Javascript as the language for the hands on example.

Overall, this is a must-have purchase if you operate Kubernetes clusters or if you are interested in how it operates under the hood. However, the book tries to cover a lot of material in a relatively short length of 170 pages so it remains concise at all times – the material covered within could easily expand to twice or even thrice the size of the book. However, given that this is a pioneering book and that it is written with a higher level of abstraction that extends its lifetime (something really important when dealing with a rapidly moving target, such as Kubernetes), then I would recommend it, and not just on the basis of the impressive credentials of the authors. I really look forward for this book to be used as a seed for a series of further literature (printed or electronic) dealing more with the operational dimensions of Kubernetes.

Book Review

Book Review: Database Reliability Engineering – Designing and Operating Resilient Database Systems

Hello and welcome to yet another book review. Databases have been called the “killer application of IT” and it is true that in, almost any, computing environment today, one or more databases are in play. Having said that, in-depth knowledge of these database systems used to reside with the DBAs of an organization. Today, with the roles being in flux, if you are an SRE chances are you have to deal with databases, quite often without the luxury of a dedicated DBA. Databases themselves have proliferated as well, with NoSQL paradigm entering the market and various combinations of the CAP theorem in effect, depending on the use case. So, it was about time that a dedicated volume appeared in the market that deals with how to apply SRE principles within a database context. Let’s start with the table of contents:

    1. Introducing Database Reliability Engineering
    1. Service-Level Management
    1. Risk Management
    1. Operational Visibility
    1. Infrastructure Engineering
    1. Infrastructure Management
    1. Backup and Recovery
    1. Release Management
    1. Security
    1. Data Storage, Index and Replication
    1. Datastore Field Guide
    1. A Data Architecture Sampler
  1. Making the case for DBRE

Substituting Reliability Engineer, as opposed to Administrator, gives this book a distinct flavor. REs (be it SREs or DBREs) come from the software domain and strive to apply software engineering principles to the operational domain – eliminating toil as they go. In addition, the cornerstone of RE is interfacing with other domains (software engineering, network engineering and yes, DBA come to mind), thus from the get go, the book stresses the need that, while the technical aspects of the book might already be known to a good DBA, there are organizational and cultural aspects to be considered as well (as in, “tear down these silos”).

The book kicks off with an introduction to the concepts that will be discussed, including a Maslow-like hierarchy of DBRE needs (the authors point out that it is totally fine to move between levels at will/need),moves on introducing traditional SRE concepts such as SLOs and how do they apply to the real world (and more importantly, how do they evolve). Risk and how to manage it gets a treatment, as well as a chapter on how to define operational visibility. No treatise on the subject would be complete without a discussion of the underlying infrastructure concepts. Recent developments such as containerization get fairly accurate and fair coverage, as well as more traditional approaches. Backup and recovery gets an extensive chapter, as this is perhaps the most important topic when dealing with databases (for certain companies, large scale dataloss could mean end of business, period). Release management, including CI/CD for databases is discussed, signifying the application of principles carried over from the software domain to the database world. Once all these topics are discussed, there is a chapter on security, including well-known attacks, such as SQL injection (which we should have gotten rid of by now!) and mitigations, including judicious use of cryptography. These chapters in my opinion form the first dimension on the book, which tends to be quite operations-heavy (and rightly so). The book then makes a foray into more traditional territory, discussing topics such as replication topologies, a datastore field guide, architectural patterns for distributed databases and finally, closes off quite nicely with a chapter on DBRE culture.

Now that we have an overview of the structure of the book (and it is a really well structured book), the big question is “does it deliver?”. In my opinion, yes, the authors keep a nice conversational style in what could have been quite some dry-writing. The authors are well known figures in the SRE (or is it DBRE?) world and the splice the text with quite a few anecdotes and external examples. Also the need for proper visibility and traceability is brought front and center (in fact the notion of establishing SLOs is centered around measurable data), I really liked that touch. The human factor is discussed in a few places in the book, which more often than not tends to be overlooked. Even skimming through the book (or speed-reading it) can yield results, given that there are a lot of visual aids. Another nice touch is that in the discussion of security, DREAD and STRIDE are discussed, which is nice to see these mentioned outside of infosec specific literature. The first chapters, as said before, are ops-heavy and they contain a wealth of information even for seasoned reliability engineers (at the very least as a refresher), while later chapters deal more with data, helping the reader to navigate the ever-increasing sprawl of database solutions.

Overall, I will recommend this book to anyone, regardless of skill level, who has to deal with databases in everyday work. This short review might not really do justice to the book, in every chapter (even the introductory one) there are broad discussion topics that one can have really detailed conversations about. Closing, the approach of the authors to apply Reliability Engineering practices in the database world is a valid one – if the advice and methodology contained in the book is followed, a lot of headaches will be preemptively removed and everybody, engineers, owners and customers will be happy. The book lends itself to repeated readings, be it back-to-back or specific chapters, and I cannot recommend it enough.

Book Review

Article Review: Containers will not fix your broken culture (and other hard truths)

First things first, if you do not know what is ACM Queue (or even worse, do not know what ACM is), click on the links provided. ACM relatively recently has reformed and now presents articles by industry experts, especially in the Queue magazine (you get an article from Queue with every Communications of the ACM magazine but there is more, much more). (disclaimer – while I am a paying ACM member, I make no profit or have no further affiliation with the organization (i.e. I am not an official Ambassador).
With that out of the way, let’s focus in the article in question. The author is Bridget Kromhout, currently working for Microsoft. The main idea of the article is that solution to difficult, seemingly technical problems, can be best resolved by examining the interactions with others. The main ideas discussed therein are the following

  • Tech is not a panacea
  • Good team interactions: Build, because you can’t buy
  • Tech, like Soylent Green, is made of people
  • Good fences make good neighbors
  • Avoiding sadness-as-a-service

The article is extremely well written. One thing I liked the most is that it includes links to definition you might or might have not heard. The key take away idea of the article is that we tend to think technology and enforce technology rules in an increasingly complex distributed system world, whereas the key is communication between individuals and teams, peers or otherwise. It also coins a phrase that unfortunately will ring true for a lot of people in the audience of this blog “on-call PTSD” and even manages to kill one of my favorite interview questions, and these are only the first two pages. The article also states “we succeed when share responsibility and have agency” – Amen to that, personally I have seen more than a few dysfunctional environments where responsibilities were shrugged off routinely. So to sum it up (and keep this review proportional to the length of the article), Bridget states the value of communication, brings in a ton of references to support her case (making the article simultaneously well research but not falling into the trap of being esoteric) and, at the same time, emphasizes the need of technology. Highly recommended reading!

Book Review

Book Review: The Practice Of Cloud System Administration Volume 2 – Designing And Operating Large Distributed Systems

Hello everyone with another book review. This time, I will be reviewing a book that I consider a classic. As always, let’s start with the list of contents:
Part I Design: Building it

  • Designing in a distributed world
  • Designing for Operations
  • Selecting a Service Platform
  • Application Architectures
  • Design Patterns for Scaling
  • Design Patterns for Resiliency

Part II Operations: Running it

  • Operations in a Distributed World
  • DevOps Culture
  • Service Delivery: The Build Phase
  • Service Delivery: The Deployment Phase
  • Upgrading Live Services
  • Automation
  • Design Documents
  • Oncall
  • Disaster Preparedness
  • Monitoring Fundamentals
  • Monitoring Architecture and Practice
  • Capacity Planning
  • Creating KPIs
  • Operational Excellence

Part III Appendices

  • Assessments
  • The Origins and Future of Distributed Computing and Clouds
  • Scaling Terminology and Concepts
  • Templates and Examples
  • Recommended Reading

overall a bit over 500 beautifully printed pages (as you would come to expect from Addison-Wesley).
As you can see from the ToC, the breadth of information contained in this book is tremendous, every chapter can easily expand into a book on its own (and indeed, there are volumes that expand on a lot of the topics), however this book achieves to give the astute reader a ton of information, heck it is almost like the information is condensed – just add water. The authors do not fell into the pit of sticking with a particular technology, they maintain a level of abstraction, that in my opinion is about right, not too abstract (that would limit the potential of the book to be applied in real world situations) and, yet, not tied to a particular technology (i.e. this book came before container orchestration frameworks became as popular as they are today but you will not notice) that would instantly severely date the book. The format of the book is similar for all chapters, first an attention-grabbing introduction, then a nice discussion of the topic at hand and finally exercises, so the reader can follow up with what has been discussed – most of them are open ended. After all, large scale distributed systems have a common set of characteristics, no matter what the implementation details are or purpose.
The potential audience of this book are both SREs and their managers. In particular, Part II of the book contains a ton of information relevant to both sides of the equation. If you manage SREs, you’d better be at least acquainted with the material and this book is more than a fine introduction. If you need a book on how to use AWS/Azure/GCP or their specifics, this volume will NOT meet your expectations, as discussed this book is more like a framework.
In case, this is not obvious by now, I consider this book a must-read for anyone dealing with modern distributed systems, be it SRE, SWE or Engineering Manager. I cannot praise this book enough, it is extremely well written, in certain cases it goes against the trends and how can you go wrong with a book that considers a zombie outbreak a valid reason for a datacenter outbreak?
Further resources:
Companion Website
Thomas Limoncelli’s Twitter

PS. A book that everybody is recommending (and asking me about it, in a variety of contexts) is Google’s SRE book. If you have not read this book by now, then you can start by going there to enjoy the book in its entirety. While the Google SRE book is an extremely useful resource, and without wanting to create a false dichotomy, it kind of overshadows this volume, which, in my humble opinion is a better choice in certain regards. Specifically, while both books have an strong Google influence (one is coming from Google, the author of the other was a Google SRE), I find that the “Practice of …” is a more focused volume, something perhaps to be expected given that it is written by “only” three authors. So, do yourself a favour, read both books, there is a wealth of information contained therein.

Book Review Uncategorized

Book Review: PostgreSQL Replication

So for my series of System Engineering books, I will proceed with a short review of PostgreSQL Replication by Packt. The reason this book came to be a part of my collection is that while there is a lot of information regarding PostgreSQL replication out there, a lot of it is out of date, given the overhaul of the replication system in PostgreSQL 9.X. Without further ado, here is the list of contents of the book.

  • Understanding Replication Concepts
  • Understanding the PostgreSQL Transaction Log
  • Understanding Point-In-Time Recovery
  • Setting up asynchronous replication
  • Setting up synchronous replication
  • Monitoring your setup
  • Understanding Linux High-Availability
  • Working with pgbouncer
  • Working with PgPool
  • Configuring Slony
  • Using Skytools
  • Working with Postgres-XC
  • Scaling with PL/Proxy
    The book gets straight into business with an introduction of replication concepts, and why this is a hard problem that cannot be a one-size fits all solution. Topics such as master-master replication and sharding are addressed as well. After this short introduction, specifics of PostgreSQL are examined, with a heavy focus on XLOG and related internals. The book goes into a nice balanced amount of detail, detailed enough to surpass the trivial level but not overwhelming (and thank $DEITY, we are spared source code excerpts, although a few references would be nice for those that are willing to dig further into implementation details), providing a healthy amount of background information. With that out of the way, a whole chapter is devoted to the topic of Point-In-Time-Recover (PITR for now on). PITR is an invaluable weapon in the arsenal of any DBA and gets a fair and actionable treatise, actionable meaning that you will walk away from this chapter with techniques you can start implementing right away.With the theory and basic vocabulary defined, the book then dives into replication. Concepts are explained, as well as drawbacks of each technique, alongside with specific technical instructions on how to get there, including a Q&A on common issues that you may encounter in the field.
    PostgreSQL has a complex ecosystem and once the actual built-in replication mechanisms are explained, common tools are presented (with the glaring omission of Bucardo unfortunately). This is where the book falters a bit, given the excellent quality of the replication related chapters. The presentation of the tools is not even nor deep in all cases – my gripe is that the Linux-HA chapter stops when it starts to get interesting. Having pointed this out, still these chapters can be better written and more concise than information scattered around in the web. I have paid particular attention to the PgPool chapter, which does not cover PgPool-HA (hint: there is more than one way to do it). These chapters assume no previous exposure to the ecosystem so they serve as a gentle (and again, actionable) introduction to the specific tools but I would have preferred them to be 10-15 pages longer each, providing some additional information, especially on the topic of high-availability. Even as-is, these chapters will save you a lot of time searching and compiling information, filling in a few blanks along the way, so, make no mistake, they are still useful. Bonus points for covering PostgreSQL-XC, which is somewhat of an underdog.
    A small detail is that examples in the book tend to focus on Debian-based systems so if you are administering a Red Hat derivative you should adapt the examples slightly, taking into consideration the differences in the packaging of PostgreSQL. Overall, the book goes for a broad as opposed to deep approach and can server as a more than solid introductory volume. Inevitably, there is an overlap with the official PostgreSQL manuals, which is to be expected given that they are great. The quality of the book is on par with other Packt Publishing titles, making this an easy to read book that will save you a lot of time for certain use cases.